Courtesy his player-of-the-match winning effort in the Border-Gavaskar Trophy series-opener, left-arm spinner Ravindra Jadeja, who made a successful comeback after almost five months due to a knee injury, has moved up to the 16th position.
The spin duo haunted Australia in the first Test between by sharing 15 wickets between them as India won by an innings 132 runs inside three days.
2nd Test: A slow turner awaits Aussies at the Kotla
Ashwin ensured India wrapped up a stunning victory before tea on the third day, as the veteran off-spinner took 5/37 in the second innings to go with 3/42 earlier in the match.
The 36-year-old is 21 rating points behind Australia captain Pat Cummins and is contention to return to the No.1 ranking for the first time since 2017.
While Ashwin stepped up in what turned out to be the last session of the Test, Jadeja did the damage on the first day with 5/47, including the prized wickets of Steve Smith and Marnus Labuschagne.
Jadeja then took 2/34 in the second Australian innings. Australia were bowled out for just 91.
Among other Indian bowlers, pacer Jasprit Bumrah, who too has been out of action since September last due to a lower back stress fracture, is placed fifth.
In the Test batting chart, India captain Rohit Sharma has been rewarded for his match-defining ton in Nagpur. He gained two spots to be at number eight.
Rohit came to the crease after Australia were all out for 177 in their first innings, then made the wicket look all-but tame with an assured 120 that set the tone for the rest of the match.
Wicket-keeper Rishabh Pant, who will be out of action for an indefinite period following his horrific car accident, is the other Indian batter in top-10. He is placed seventh.
In contrast Australian openers David Warner and Usman Khawaja have paid the price for being dismissed cheaply twice.
Warner has fallen six places to 20th after his scores of 1 and 10, while Khawaja has dropped two spots to 10th after only making 1 and 5 in the first Test.
Australian duo of Marnus Labuschagne and Steve Smith occupy the top two position with Pakistan captain Babar Azam in the third spot.
India all-rounder Axar Patel has leaped six places to seventh in Test all-rounder rankings after coming to the crease at a tense 240 for 7. He hit a patient 84 for his highest score in the format.
The second Test between India and Australia will be played in New Delhi from Friday.
(With PTI inputs)